‘The critics may erase all of my poetry but this poem that I today remember, nobody will be able to erase.’
Pablo Neruda, Trompeloup, 4th August 1939
How My Grandfather Became Part of This Story
In 2015 I was working on a project which involved finding maritime data to create a visualisation of boats, which you can see in this link: http://lumacode.com/projects/gttw/
and I was planning to develop it further into a poetic visualisation of the boats from the port of Buenos Aires, when I remembered that my grandfather had lived in Argentina.
I had only just recently found an ID card at my mother's house in their place of origin, a village from the province of Guadalajara in España. As nowadays we look for everything online, I decided to google his name, Franciso Mencía Roy and the name of the city where he lived in Argentina, Comodoro de Rivadavia, and to my surprise I found his name together with that of his brother Cosme, on the passengers' list of a boat called the Winnipeg. I was astonished as I didn't expect to find their names online and from this moment on, the project took a different direction. I was too curious not to carry on researching and exploring the possibilities to create an artistic project based on such a personal and intimate event, as well as historical to present it at the E-Poetry Festival in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Therefore, I started to research about the Winnipeg, nobody in my family knew they had travelled on this boat. After the Civil War in Spain, there were many Spanish Republicans that fled to France and were kept in concentration camps in the south of the country and it seems as though my grandfather and his brother were in these camps. This news was a massive surprise for all the family and more so when I also discovered that the famous poet Pablo Neruda from Chile, who worked as the Consul Immigration Officer, living in Chile at the time, with his love for Spain and moved by this situation, in a gesture of solidarity, had decided to help these refugees with the assistance of Pedro Aguirre Cerda, the Prime Minister of Chile at the time. He organised the Winnipeg and interviewed every passenger on the boat, being able to accommodate 2,200 Spanish civil war exiles to travel from Trompeloup, France to Valparaiso, Chile on the 4 of August 1939. (You can read Neruda's beautiful poem "Misión de amor" in his book Memorial de Isla Negra. It might be translated like “A Labour of love” or “Love mission” where he explains how he was calling them and they were appearing with their different professions. He also compares them to seeds he is spreading over the sea on their way to peace.)
It is said, that when the Winnipeg was about to leave, Pablo Neruda was so touched by the emotional atmosphere created at the port with the people leaving, that to keep this memory, he wrote: "Que la crítica borre toda mi poesía, si le parece. Pero este poema, que hoy recuerdo, no podrá borrarlo nadie"."The critics may erase all of my poetry but this poem that I today remember, nobody will be able to erase".
I was completely astonished that thanks to Pablo Neruda, my grandfather had been saved from the concentrations camps in France and given a place to travel on this vessel. As far as I know, he was a medic so I presume this must have been a valuable skill to have in a long trip like this one. I tried to find any long lost family who might have any information about the Winnipeg, perhaps have family in Chile but I had not much luck until recently, when I was told Cosme, his brother, had been married in Chile and had family there. This unfortunately came after I had already had been to Chile and I am yet to be in touch with them.
Thus, starting with the exploration of the visualisation of maritime data and the use of mobile Apps, my artistic research evolved into reading about historical events of the Spanish Civil War and the Historical Memory including Spanish and Chilean Memory. I have found books, exhibitions about the Winnipeg, its passengers, their lives, family and a very useful link to the archive of La Memoria Chilena. It was amazing to see not only my grandfather's story unravelled in front of my eyes- at discovering stories and information about this important historical event, which as a matter of fact, it is still lost in the memory of Spain as it is not that well known- but also how this fact had impacted and influenced my own life.
To start with I was interested in creating a poetic visualisation of the ships traveling to Latin America during the month of August 1939, with the Winnipeg being the star as the cargo ship of many feelings, hopes and farewells. I contacted libraries to find the log of the Winnipeg or any digitised information about the boats sailing on that year from France or Spain to Latino America but I have yet to find the route of the Winnipeg digitised. The data and coordinates would have been useful to visualise an accurate route but I found a map in the archive of La Memoria Chilena showing the trajectory from Trompeloup to Valparaiso, which now has become part of the project with the name of the passengers appearing as a string of text delineating the route of the Winnipeg.
I travelled to Buenos Aires and presented the first prototype of the project at the E-Poetry 2015 Festival, getting the audience engaged and curious about the story. The day of the opening at the Museo de la Inmigración (MUNTREF), which in the past had been the hotel of the immigrants because of its vicinity to the port, I had another amazing surprise. I found out they had digitised all the passengers’ arrivals to the port and consequently, I found documents stating the arrival of my grandmother and her four children on their visit to my grandfather on the 12th of February 1951 in the vessel of Cabo de Buena Esperanza. She had travelled with all her children apart from my father because due to his age he had to do the military service in Spain. My aunts and uncles were young, with ages from twenty the oldest girl, eighteen and sixteen the two boys and thirteen the youngest girl. The date revealed that they hadn't seen my grandfather for very long eleven years, and on top of it all, we found out the reason why my grandmother and her youngest daughter had shortly come back to Spain, was because my grandfather died soon after they arrived. The three other children stayed in Latino America looking for a better live until they finally settled in Caracas, Venezuela. Years later my father travelled with my mother to visit his family, this visit was extended to seven years and there I was born.
I would have never thought I was going to be indebted to the poet responsible for the "Twenty Love Poems: And A Song of Despair” that I had so many times recommended to my students of Spanish in London, the Pablo Neruda of the “The book of questions”- for how he had forged and contributed somehow to my interests in life: travelling, cultures, languages, literature, art, the need to explore and be curious, the always feeling like being from somewhere else and somehow different, of being melancholic and happy at the same time, of being able to stand up on my own two feet with perseverance and determination, because somehow I had inherited this from my family. And finally for having saved my grandfather and his brother. I also need to add that my father was always surrounded by a sadness and bitterness due to losing his father when he was about eleven years old, when my grandfather went to war and later to exile and never to see him again, and for the consequences it all brought.
It could be said that this story that has accompanied me, without me knowing, is the fruit of many of my projects and especially of those very related to this "Poem that crossed the Atlantic" such as: "Cityscapes: Social Poetics / Public Textualities" 2005 and "Connected Memories" 2009. How unaware we are of some of our deeply ingrained feelings!
After the E-Poetry Festival in Buenos Aires, I wanted to research this further and went to the wonderful and magical city of Valparaiso in Chile, I visited Neruda's houses, Isla Negra, and Santiago de Chile where I carried on researching on archives, community centres, galleries, videoing, taking photographs, talking to people and when they asked me why I was visiting Chile, I told them my grandfather had taken me there. It was a beautiful feeling, which warmed my heart and made me feel welcomed as if somehow part of me belonged to that country, I felt at home in a country where I had never been and had gratitude for its generosity.
Finally, now we have created this website which invites the reader, the passengers’ families and anybody interested in this event to add their stories, so these become the material for the poetic visualisation of the journey of the Winnipeg, what I have tiled “The Poem that Crossed the Atlantic”, I think I saw this title somewhere on line or in the readings and I liked the idea of the vessel with its many stories to be the poem. These interconnected stories of the passengers and family which this cargo vessel carried, with their feelings, hopes and farewells, are now represented in the sea of the World Wide Web, together with the poems by Pablo Neruda and relevant information about this event.
A poem created with love to a grandfather I never met, and to my father who never saw his father again from the age of eleven. And to all of those who are currently in similar situations of hardship, displacement, lost and in exile.
The Winnipeg archive
This is a non linear archive. Search for any word to start browsing.
“And one morning all that was burning,
one morning the bonfires
leapt out of the earth
devouring human beings (…)
came through the sky to kill children
and the blood of children ran through the streets
without fuss, like children’s blood (…)
Come and see the blood in the streets.
Come and see
the blood in the streets.
Come and see the blood
in the streets!”
Poèmes de Neruda
Et un matin tout était en flamme
et un matin les foyers
sortaient de terre
dévorant les vivants (…)
venaient du ciel pour tuer des enfants,
et à travers les rues le sang des enfants
coulait simplement, comme du sang d’enfants. (…)
Venez voir le sang dans les rues,
le sang dans les rues,
venez voir le sang
dans les rues !
Pablo Neruda was a key figure in Chilean culture and politics of the 20th century and had a significant impact on the country’s society and arts. On September 23rd, 1973, twelve days after the coup d’état and the passing of his friend President Salvador Allende, Pablo Neruda died from prostate cancer in Santiago. For the centenary of the poet’s birth, an exhibition entitled “Las Vidas Del Poeta” was organised in the National Library of Chile.
Moving away from his introspective beginnings, the second cycle of Neruda’s poetry was more oriented towards a deep social consciousness. By the mid-1920s, Chilean society had changed remarkably, affecting the way the poet perceived the world in which he lived, as he later acknowledged in his memoirs. Neruda was then aware of the return of thousands of now unemployed workers from salty deserts to the capital, of the fight led by Luis Emilio Recabarren, of the popular and student demands, as well as the unshakeable reign of the oligarchy. Without wanting to erase all traces of love, life, joy or sadness from his poems, Neruda nevertheless recognized that it was “impossible to completely reject the street and leave no place for it in my poems.” (Confieso that he vivido, 1979, 76). In addition to these social circumstances, the introduction of politics into his life and work was also motivated by his first diplomatic career started in 1927, when he was appointed consul of Chile in Burma. This is what allowed him to get in touch with the world and to focus on social justice. In 1927, he published in Spain a book written during his travels through the East and Europe, which eventually became one of his major works: Residence on Earth.
Pablo Neruda’s literary and poetic creativity has earned him the recognition of his peers and critics. In 1965, he received the title of Doctor Honoris Causa at Oxford University. In 1945, he received the National Prize for Literature and, in 1971, the Nobel Prize for Literature, becoming the sixth Spanish-speaking writer and the third Latin American writer to receive this distinction.
“S’éloignant de ses débuts introspectifs, le second cycle de la poésie de Neruda s’orientait davantage vers une conscience sociale profonde. Au milieu des années 1920, la société chilienne avait remarquablement changé, affectant ainsi la façon dont le poète percevait le monde dans lequel il vivait, comme il le reconnut plus tard dans ses mémoires. Neruda avait alors pris conscience du retour à la capitale de milliers de travailleurs des déserts salins, désormais sans emploi, du combat mené par Luis Emilio Recabarren, des revendications populaires et estudiantines, ainsi que le règne inébranlable de l’oligarchie. Sans pour autant vouloir effacer toute trace d’amour, de vie, de joie ou de tristesse de ses poèmes, Neruda reconnut néanmoins qu’il lui était “”impossible de rejeter complètement la rue et ne lui laisse aucune place dans mes poèmes”” (Confieso que he vivido, 1979, p. 76). En plus de ces circonstances sociales, l’introduction du politique dans sa vie et son travail fut aussi motivée par sa première carrière diplomatique débutée en 1927, lorsqu’il fut nommé consul du Chili en Birmanie. C’est cela qui lui a permis d’entrer en contact avec le monde et de s’intéresser à la justice sociale. En 1927, il publia en Espagne un livre écrit au cours de ses voyages à travers l’Orient et l’Europe, et qui deviendra l’une de ses œuvres majeures: Résidence sur la terre.
La créativité littéraire et poétique de Pablo Neruda lui ont obtenu la reconnaissance de ses pairs et des critiques. EN 1965, il reçut de titre de Docteur Honoris Causa à l’Université d’Oxford. En 1945, il reçut le prix national de littérature et, en 1971, le Prix Nobel de Littérature, devenant ainsi le sixième écrivain hispanophone et le troisième écrivain d’Amérique Latine à recevoir cette distinction.”
Que la critique efface toute ma poésie si bon lui semble, mais ce poème que j’écris aujourd’hui, personne ne pourra l’effacer.
Ces souvenirs sont intermittents et parfois parsemés d’oubli, car la vie est ainsi faite. Neruda.
Et je les mis sur mon bateau.
C’était en plein jour et la France
eut cette fois sa robe d’apparat
il y avait
la clarté du vin et de l’air
dans sa tunique de déesse forestière.
Mon navire attendait avec
son nom lointain
« Winnipeg »
collé à la jetée du jardin embrasé,
aux vieux raisins obstinés de l’Europe.
Pourtant mes Espagnols ne venaient pas
du bal argenté,
des tapis anciens, amarante,
des coupes qui trillent
avec le vin,
non, ils ne venaient pas de là,
non, ils ne venaient pas de là.
De plus loin,
des camps et des maisons d’arrêt,
des sables noirs
des cachettes inclémentes
où ils gisaient
dans la faim et la nudité,
mon bateau clair,
vers mon navire à l’ancre, vers l’espoir
ils accoururent l’un après l’autre
à mon appel, de leurs prisons,
d’une France qui chancelait,
par ma bouche appelés
« Saavedra », dis-je, et je vis venir le maçon,
« Zuñiga » dis-je, et « Zuñiga » était présent,
« Roces », et Roces arriva avec son sourire sévère,
je criai « Alberti ! », et la poésie accourut
avec ses mains de quartz.
comme il se peuplait le bateau
qui s’en allait vers ma patrie.
Je sentais dans mes doigts
que je rachetai, que je répandis
sur la mer, destinées
à la paix
The Winged Winnipeg- Neruda
From the beginning I liked the word Winnipeg. Words have wings or they don’t. The rough ones stick to the paper, to the table, to the earth. The word Winnipeg is ‘winged’. I saw it flying for the first time in a dock of steamers near Bordeaux. It was a beautiful old ship, with that dignity given by The Seven Seas, over time. The truth is that the cargo vessel had never taken more than 70 or 80 people on board. The rest was cacao, sacks of coffee and rice, minerals. Now it was destined for a different kind of cargo: that of hope. 9Pablo Neruda0
Les ailes du Winnipeg- Neruda
J’ai aimé dès le début le mot Winnipeg. Les mots ont des ailes ou n’en ont pas. Les mots rugueux restent collés au papier, à la table, à la terre. Le mot Winnipeg est ailé. Je l’ai vu s’envoler pour la première fois sur le quai d’un embarcadère, près de Bordeaux.
Le Winnipeg était un beau vieux bateau, auquel les sept mers et le temps avaient donné sa dignité. On peut affirmer qu’il n’avait jamais transporté à son bord plus de soixante-dix à quatre-vingts personnes. Le reste avait été constitué par des cargaisons de cacao, de coprah, de sacs de café, de riz, par des chargements de minerais. Cette fois pourtant un affrètement plus important l’attendait: l’espoir. (Pablo Neruda)
I never thought I would be indebted to Pablo Neruda for saving my grandfather FRANCISCO MENCÍA ROY and his brother COSME MENCÍA ROY from the concentration camps in France.
The initial document where I found my grandfather Francisco Mencía Roy and his brother Cosme Mencía Roy. Memoria Chilena: Los españoles del Winnipeg, List of passengers. http://www.memoriachilena.cl/archivos2/pdfs/MC0001872.pdf
Refugiados españoles desmienten en Chile las leyendas del barco Winnipeg
“Los historiadores Jaime Ferrer y Julio Gálvez afirmaron que en el Winnipeg viajó
“gente de todas las regiones de España” y con “oficios de todo tipo”, pertenecientes
a hasta 33 movimientos y partidos políticos distintos, según las fichas de los pasajeros
que se encontraron”.
“La pintora Roser Bru declaró que el Gobierno chileno pidió que entre los pasajeros
del Winnipeg se encontraran profesionales de todo tipo, con el fin de que pudiesen
aportar conocimientos al pueblo chileno, y descartó que solo hubiese gente afiliada
al Partido Comunista”.
Escalona Ruiz, J.F. (1998) Una aproximación al exilio chileno: La Editorial Cruz del Sur, El exilio literario español de 1939. Edición de Manuel Aznar Soler, 2 vols. GEXEL, Barcelona, 1998,I, pp.367-378.
Ferrer, J. (1989) Los españoles del Winnipeg, El barco de la esperanza. Ediciones Cal Solgas. Santiago de Chile, Chile.
Fajardo, Marco. (2014) “Conmemoran los 75 años de la Llegada del Winnipeg con Exposición Artística.” El Mostrador, 4 Aug 2014, elmostrador.cl/cultura/2014/08/04/conmemoran-los-75-anos-de-la-llegada-del-winnipeg-con-exposicion-artistica/. Accessed 14 Oct 2018.
Ferrer Mir, Jaime (2010). Los Españoles del Winnipeg, El barco de la Esperanza. Ediciones Cal Sogas.
Florenchie, Amélie (2019) Viaje en la transliteratura con El Winnipeg, el barco de la esperanza de María Mencía, in Transmedialidades en la literatura hispanoamericana, M. Audran & G. Schmitter (ed.), América, no. 52, online journal.
Florenchie, Amélie (2018, 25-26 Oct) El Winnipeg: el poema que cruzó el Atlántico de María Mencía o la construcción digital la memoria del exilio republicano. Conference “A vueltas con el retorno”, Instituto Cervantes/Universidad Bordeaux-Montaigne.
Gálvez, Barraza Julio (2003) Neruda y España. Ril.
Gálvez, Barraza Julio (2014) Winnipeg: Testimonios de un Exilio. Editorial Renacimiento.
Lemuse,E. (1998) La investigación de “los refugiados españoles” en Chile: fuentes y hallazgos en un exilio de larga duración. Exils et migrations ibériques vers l´Amérique latine, 5, (pp.273-293)
Lloréns, V. La emigración republicana de 1939, El exilio español de 1939, dirigida por J.L.Abellán, 6 vols.
Llagaria Vázquez, Fernando (2016) “Cuando Quieras Entender Tu Presente, Pregúntate por el Pasado.” Copihue Rojo, no. 16, Sep.
Mancebo, Maria Fernanda. “El Exilio en Chile. Testimonio de Ovidio Oltra,” Presentation at the Universidad de Valencia, Cuadernos Republicanos, no. 51, 2003, pp. 65-79. dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=1195950. Accessed 14 Oct 2018.
1.- Recuerdos Insistentes. Ovidio Oltra. Inédito.
2.- El Exilio en Chile. Testimonio de Ovidio Oltra. Mª Fernanda Mancebo Universidad de Valencia.
3.- Historia de los pasajeros del Winnipeg. Mesa redonda: Ovidio Oltra. 60º Aniversario de la llegada del Winnipeg a Chile. Centro Cultural de España. Santiago de Chile. 7 de Septiembre de 1999.
Mencia, María (2019) The Winnipeg: The Poem that Crossed the Atlantic. Hyperrhiz : New Media Cultures, 20, ISSN (online) 1555-9351. http://hyperrhiz.io/hyperrhiz20/moving-texts/2-mencia-the-winnipeg.html
Mencia, María. Pold, Soren & Portela, Manuel (2018) Electronic Literature Translation: Translation as Process, Experience and Mediation. Electronic Book Review
Mencia, María (2018) The Winnipeg: Poem that Crossed the Atlantic in M Boria, A Carreres, M Noriega-Sánchez & M Tomalin (eds) Translation and Multimodality: Beyond Words, 1st Edition, Routledge.
Meza N. (2019), Visualising Latin American Discourses through a Digital Rhetoric Perspective, in Digital Narrative Network, Bergen, Norway.
Meza N. (2019) Voces y figuras: hacia una retórica digital de las obras de literatura electrónica latinoamericana. Revista Texto Digital v. 15, n. 1 online: https://periodicos.ufsc.br/index.php/textodigital/article/view/1807-9288.2019v15n1p39/40647
Meza N. (Leeds Univ) 2018, The Winnipeg: TPCA: The City and the Sea: Archetypal Settings in Lain American Electronic Literature in Women in Spanish and Portuguese Studies. UoL, London, UK
Miñana Luisa, 14 June 2018, Review about my work “El Winnipeg, el barco de la esperanza”, Published in Artes & Letras -Heraldo de Aragón (main newspaper in Spain).
Morales Malva, J.R. El delito de pensar, una razón del destierro, Léxili cultural de 1939. Seixanta anys després, Edición de Mª Fernanda Mancebo, Marc Baldó y Cecilio Alonso, 2 vols. Universitat de Valencia, Biblioteca Valenciana, Fundación Max Aub, Valencia, 2002, II, (pp.613-)
Neruda P. (1974) El Libro de las preguntas. Planeta.
Neruda, P. (1974) Confieso que he vivido. Memorias. Seix-Barral, Barcelona, (pp. 204-206)
Oltra Alonso O. (1999) Texto en Winnipeg 60 años. Folleto con las actividades y el testimonio de varios exiliados editado por el Centro cultural de España, Santiago de Chile. pp. 14-15.
Exhibitions/ Exposiciones in Spain, Canada, Mexico
El Winnipeg: el Poema que cruzó el Atlántico
Mencía, María (2018) The Winnipeg: Poem that Crossed the Atlantic, in Máquinas de escritura, Galería Libertad curated by Mónica Nepote from the E-literatura, Centro de Cultura Digital, Querétaro, Mexico.
Mencía, María (2018) in Lorem BITsum: Literatura electrónica, curated by María Goicoechea and Laura Sánchez, in the Cultural Centre, La Casa del Lector, Madrid, Spain.
Mencía, María (2018) in Mind The Gap exhibition, ELO 2018 Conference, Montreal, Canada.
Nov 2019, The Winnipeg: The Poem that Crossed the Atlantic in SPANISH EXILES IN THE UK: HISTORY AND LEGACIES, Birkbeck and Instituto Cervantes, London, UK.
March 2019,The Winnipeg: The Poem that Crossed the Atlantic, Universidad Bordeaux, France.
Feb 2019, The Winnipeg: TPCA, Case study and research methodologies, Digital Culture Studies in Modern Languages. Royal Holloway University of London, UK.
June 2018, The Winnipeg: TPCA: Autobiography, History and Memory in the Poetic Ocean Atlantic Casa del Lector, Matadero, Madrid, Spain.
March 2018, Hybrid Digital Poetics: A Cross- Fertilisation of Languages, in Multilingual Digital Authorship Symposium, Lancaster University, UK.
Oct 2017, The Winnipeg: TPCA in Translation and Poetry, Cambridge Conversations in Translation, Cambridge University, UK;
May 2017, Visual Navigations: The Winnipeg: TPCA in Other Codes conference, National University of Ireland, Galway;
The aim of this interdisciplinary practice-based artistic investigation has been to create a multi-linguistic and interactive online poetic narrative, The Poem that Crossed the Atlantic, (See THE POEM on the menu-translations in process) and this accompanying website. The Poem is fed by the stories gathered in the website through uploaded posts. The interlacing of the stories will increase with the number of posts. Its main inspiration has been a personal story rooted in historical events of the Spanish Civil War and the Spanish and Chilean Historical Memory, interconnected with the involvement of the Chilean poet Pablo Neruda in the evacuation and rescue of 2,200 Spanish civil war exiles- including my own grandfather- from French concentration camps to Valparaiso, Chile, in the Winnipeg ship in 1939.
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